The invisible exclusion
Statement of the Committee on Relations and Gender in the SBF 03/08/2012
Norbert Elias [1,2] estimates that the main revolution sparked by Western society throughout the history happened in the twentieth century, when the women won the right to their own identity, without the need for setting it from their relationship with father or husband. However, this right is still not fully in many aspects, such as the case of women's participation in scientific areas such as physics.
An allegory of these struggles is the day on March 8, chosen by the United Nations as the International Women's Day. Currently, around seventy nations had adopt this date, which refers to the strike of women in prelude of the Russian Revolution in 1917. In Brazil, we celebrate 80 years of female voting rights besides 35 years of International Women's Day existence. These achievements are by political organizations and academic / scientific such as ABRASCO or such as the fresh-crated Secretariat of Policies for Women, at the governmental level, SPM / PR [3-6].
One result of this mobilization is that sometimes transpires to society through the mass media, certain social gender equality. However, that does not happen, even in a reasonable manner, the woman continues to receive wages lagged, being physically brutalized, and the occupation of social space remains unbalanced, hence the supposed identity remains committed [6,7].
The search for social identity itself is one of the central responses to the historical violence against women. This violence has an explicit nature, often associated with shame and prejudice, and one implicit, also marked by prejudice, but characterized by a certain social invisibility. In a more explicit way, issues of gender have been systematically studied and discussed including researches dealing with ethical issue bound to the academic and gender freeedoms [8,9], literature and film  and physical and moral violence angainst women . On the other hand, issues of more implicit nature have been developed in much lower extension. An example of this implicit violence against women is translated by observing the percentage of doctorates in physics in some countries: USA, 13%, France 26%, Germany 10%, Brazil, 15% [12-15]. For this sort of observation, the analysis of common sense points to a reification of naive concepts, which are based in ignorance or in prejudice against contributions that women have bequeathed to the physical sciences.
Two examples are sufficient to dispel the fallacy, among other similar arguments, about the lack the biological female capacity for the physical sciences and mathematics. The first is the Marie Curie’s work on subatomic physics, which led her to be honored with two Nobel prizes . A second example is the legacy of Professor Emmy Noether, her results on symmetries, partially summarized in the famous Noether's theorem, underlies all the modern physics theories [16,17].
These examples are significant indications that the minimum percentage female participation in physics is based on matters of exclusion socially constructed over centuries. However, the social invisibility cloak, which dulls the objective analysis of this process, still remains. Accordingly, the Council of the Brazilian Physics Society (SBF) established in 2003, the Commission on Gender Relations, with the aim to establish actions for physical activities in the country is conducted independently of gender and ethnicity. The actions of this this SBF Commission, such as studies about female the participation in Brazilian physics and debate on this issue, constitutes which Norbert Elias referes to be a female achieviments with respect to women's own social identity; process which brings implications for society.Elisa Maria Baggio Saitovitch (CBPF) - Coordinator Renata Zukanovich Funchal (IF-USP) Maria Cristina Batoni Abdalla Ribeiro (IFT-UNESP) Marcia Cristina Bernardes Barbosa (IF-UFRGS) Suani Tavares Rubin de Pinho (IF-UFBA) Ademir Eugênio de Santana (IF - UnB)
Current members of the Gender Relations Committee and the SBF Norbert Elias, A Sociedade dos indivíduos, Paris, Fayard, 1990.  Nathalie Heinich, A sociologia de Norbert Elias, Bauru/SP, EDUSC, 1997.  Tânia M.Fontenele-Mourão, Mulheres no topo da carreira, Brasília, Publicação da Secretaria Especial de Políticas para as Mulheres, 2006.  Francisco M. Paz, Senadoras: dados biográficos, Brasília, Secretaria de Arquivo, Senado Federal, 2004.  Leila L. Barsted, Os avanços no reconhecimento dos direitor humanos das mulheres, em: Autonomia econômica e empoderamento da mulher, Brasília, Fundação Alexandre de Gusmão, Ministério das Relações Exteriores, 2011.  Tania N. Swain, Voto Feminista, primeira conquista, www.unb.br/noticias/unbagencia/artigo.php?id=487; 2012.  Pierre Bourdieu, A Dominação masculina, Rio de janeiro, Bertrand Brasil, 1999.  Débora Diniz, Samantha Buglione, Roger R. Rios, Entre a dúvida e o dogma, Brasília, Letras Livres, 2006.  Wendy Rogers, Angela Ballantyne, Populações especiais: vulnerabilidade e proteção, em: Ética em pesquisa: temas globais, Debora Diniz, Andréa Sugai, Dirce Guillhem, Flávia Squinca [Eds.], Brasília, EdUnB (2008).  Cíntia Schwantes, Genealogias de gênero: orientações de dissertações e teses no grupo de trabalho A Mulher na Literatura, em: Mulher e Literatura - 25 anos: raízes e rumos, Org. Cristina Stevens, Florianópolis, Editora Mulheres, 2010.  Kátia S. Braga, Elise Nascimento [Orgs], Débora Diniz [Ed.], Bibliografia Maria da Penha: Violência contra a mulher no Brasil, Brasília, Letras Livres e EdUnB, 2006.  Rachel Ivie, Kim .N. Ray, Women in Physics and Astronomy, American Institute of Physics Report, 2005 (www.aip.org/statistics).  D.A. Agrello, R. Garg, Mulheres na Física: poder e preconceito nos países em desenvolvimento, Rev. Bras. Ens. Fis. 31, 1305 (2009)  Marcia C.B. Barbosa, J.J. Arenzon http://www.if.ufrgs.br/~arenzon/bolsa/  Physics World special issue: Women in Physics http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/print/17749;http://www.aip.org/statistics/trends/highlite/women/iupap.htm.  Nina Byers, Garry Williams (Eds.), Out of the shadows: contributions of Twentieth-Century women to physics, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 2006.  James W. Brewer, Emmy Noether: A Tribute to her life and work, ed.: Martha K. Smith, Marcel Dekker, 1981.
Female success in science: a matter of chance or choice?
Andressa Lima, 12-11-11
Looking at the first woman activities in the scientific European community, most of them depended on individual efforts such was the case of Marie Curie and Clara Immerwahr. In Germany, Clara had less success than Marie in France, even though, for both the successes in scientific carrier was more a matter of chance than choice. The success divergence of their carrier after gotten the Ph.D degree was based in a simple point: the marriage. While Pierre Curie offered his laboratory to his wife develop research with his collaboration during entire life, Fritz Haber, who was a scientist as well as an oppressive being, turned Clara in a subservient housewife. Her scientific research was hindered. Instead, she contributed to her husband's work by translating his works into the English language.
Around a century after, what have changed in women participation in science? Considerable progresses have been made however an enlargement is under debate. Nowadays girls could decide to enter science as they wish. They have as similar chances as opposite gender has to get scholarship to follow the academic carrier trajectory. However, fewer of them reach leadership position in science afterward. The reasons behind this phenomenon are under investigation in the fresh-created committee of gender of IUPAP - International Union of Pure and Applied Physics . By the moment, the committee organizes surveys in the issue as well as the promotion of debates. An interesting outcome from those debates was put in a document finding in reference 2. Therein, the reader finds among other things the definitions of success and recommendations for success. I do recommend this text to every girl interested in succeed in science!!
So far, most of the woman success in science depended on the chance but the perfect balance to conduct carrier as well as life is to leave the personal decision be moved as much by choice as much by chance. Indeed, this should also be the challenges which the fresh-created Brazilian committee for the gender matter will face in a near future . http://wgwip.df.uba.ar/